In the “Fire Attack” chapter of “The Art of War,” Sun Tzu elucidates the methods and elements of employing fire and water attacks. Looking back at historical examples, such as Cao Cao’s burning of Wuchao, Lu Xun’s fire attack on the enemy camp spanning seven hundred miles, Xue Rengui’s incineration of Yanzhou, and Zhu Yuanzhang’s burning of Chen Youliang, countless classic victories in fire attack campaigns affirm the principles outlined in Sun Tzu’s treatise.
Executing a fire attack is no easy task. Igniting a fire requires timing, and initiating a fire attack is not a decision made casually by the commander. First and foremost, the commander must possess courage and insight. They must be adept at observing the enemy, monitoring weather changes, and evaluating factors such as the commander’s wisdom, trustworthiness, benevolence, courage, and strictness. Success in a fire attack hinges on the meticulous alignment of these elements. Failure in a fire attack can lead to significant losses, defeat, and even the downfall of a nation, as exemplified by the historical incident where the fire attack initiated by Wang Lin of the Later Liang backfired, resulting in a decisive defeat.
Sun Tzu asserts, “War is a matter of vital importance to the state; a matter of life and death, the road to either safety or ruin. Hence, it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected.” Engaging in warfare determines the fate of a nation, involving matters of life and death for its people. Whether in strategic planning or tactical maneuvers during battles, a cautious approach is essential. Arrogance towards the enemy can lead to disastrous consequences. Historical examples abound, emphasizing the importance of meticulous self-analysis, recognizing weaknesses, and formulating contingency plans.
Sun Tzu further advises that war requires adaptability; one must not rigidly adhere to military doctrines. This principle is equally applicable in daily life. Just as in warfare, facing unforeseen circumstances requires calm and collected analysis, clear problem-solving, and the ability to navigate through unexpected challenges. Life, like war, demands a thorough examination of factors and the flexibility to adapt to changing situations.
Finally, Sun Tzu emphasizes that military action should not be driven by anger or provoked by resentment. Actions must align with strategic interests, and engagement should cease when it no longer serves those interests. Instances such as King Huai of Chu’s impulsive actions, driven by desires and anger, leading to the detriment of the state, serve as cautionary tales. War is not an end in itself but a means of resolving issues. Careful consideration and comprehensive preparation are prerequisites before initiating warfare. Emotional control is crucial to prevent impulsive actions with irreversible consequences.
Achieving composure, flexibility, and emotional control is undoubtedly challenging. However, consistent and thoughtful reflection before and after actions, combined with diligent consideration, will inevitably lead to improved capabilities in maintaining calmness and adaptability. Even if perfection is not attainable, continuous effort will undoubtedly yield substantial progress.